|August 1922, Vol. 18, No. 8||Electric Traction (Chicago)||Page 662|
Rejuvenation of a Canadian Railway
How the management of a system in Ontario modernized cars and generating equipment, to provide unexcelled service
M. W. Kirkwood
It became apparent, during 1919, that the 600 volt rolling stock and sub-station equipment on the Grand River Railway, would require extensive additions in the way of power generating apparatus and rolling stock equipment, in order to provide for the prompt and efficient handling of existing traffic including passenger, express and freight.
Since operation of the Lake Erie & Northern Railway at 1500 volts d.c. had proved so highly successful, both from an engineering and an operating standpoint, and in view of the numerous advantages to be gained with uniform operating voltage throughout, it appeared to be folly to purchase additional 600 volt equipment, thus entailing greater expenditure, should it be deemed advisable at some future date, to convert to 1500 volt, and in the meantime, lose the advantage to be gained by such operation.
Therefore, the management recommended that the Grand River Railway operating voltage be changed from 600 to 1,500 volts, and that other improvements and betterment be carried out. It was the intention to improve the operating conditions of both lines by making possible the interchange of rolling stock for through movement of passenger, freight and express trains, and at the same time, effect a more efficient distribution of power by installation of reverse current meter between the overhead power lines at Galt.
The power supply of 600 volt operation, consisted of two substations, one located at Preston, and the other at Kitchener.
The Preston station was equipped with one 500 k.w. 550 volt Westinghouse rotary converter, and two stand-by 225 k.w. 550 volt Westinghouse rotary converters.
The station at Kitchener had one 225 k.w. 550 volt Westinghouse converter. The power was supplied by the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario at 6600 volts 25 cycles to the Preston station. The Kitchener station was supplied through a private 3-phase line from the Preston station at 6600 volts to step-down transformers.
Power was distributed through three switch panels to the three sections of line, viz., from Preston to Galt, from Preston to Hespeler, and from Preston to Kitchener. A 300,000 c.m. stranded copper cable extended from Preston substation for about one mile and was continued by 2/0 solid copper feeder to Galt. The Hespeler section was fed by one mile 300,000 c.m. stranded copper cable.
The feeder to Kitchener section was attached to the two 3/0 copper trolley wires outside the station, extended from Preston to Kitchener. From sub-station at Kitchener a 300,000 c.m. stranded copper cable extended north for approximately two miles and was tapped to line at frequent intervals.
The power supply for the 1,500 volt operation, consists of one sub-station located at Preston, to which power is furnished by the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario, at 13,200 volts, 25 cycles, over a double unit, 3 wire, 3 phase transmission line into two banks of single unit 3 phase, oil-insulated water cooled transformers, of a 13200/2200 ratio 1150 k.w.a. rating, to two motor generator sets consisting of a 1440 h.p. 1138 k.v.a. synchronous motor, a 17 k.w. 125 volt d.c. exciter, and a 1000 k.w. generator, equipped with flash suppressor, which operates in 1/1000 sec. to take car of shorts caused by grounds, and defects of rolling stock.
A similar machine has been installed at the Brantford substation of the Lake Erie & Northern Railway. The above equipment was furnished and installed by the Canadian Westinghouse Company of Hamilton, Ontario.
Under the new system, the line is sectionalized as before, and is fed by three separate 300,000 c.m. feeders from substation. The feeder to the Galt section is tapped to line about one-quarter mile from the substation. The feeder to the Galt section is tapped to line about one-quarter mile from the substation, and that to Hespeler section about half a mile away. On the Kitchener section, the feeder extends for about three miles, the first tap being made about one and a quarter miles from sub-station.
Catenary construction, consisting of 7/16 steel strand messenger and 3/0 grooved copper trolley, has been erected on main lines, replacing old single wire construction.
The overhead wires are supported by cross-spans on double track, and bracket arms on single track. The contact wire is attached to messenger by hangers spaced thirty feet apart. Sidings have been insulated for 1,500 volts. It is the intention ultimately to erect a steel contact wire to be clamped underneath present copper trolley wire, which will then act only as a feeder.
New rolling stock
Seven new modern steel cars, as shown in the illustration, have been placed in operation on the Grand River Railway, and two similar cars on the Lake Erie & Northern Railway.
These cars have an overall length of 63 ft. 8 1/2 ins., a switch of 9 ft. 6 ins., and a height of 13 ft. 4 5/8 ins. to top of trolley board. Their weight is 48 tons fully equipped, and they have a seating capacity of sixty-eight, including a smoking compartment of twenty-two.
The inside trim is mahogany, with a white enameled composition head lining. The outside finish is tuscan red enamel, with gold leaf lettering, covered by a coat of varnish. the seats are Hale & Kilbourn make, with pantasote covering. The curtains are pantasote.
In the smoking compartment is a locker for the use of train crew and the equipment they require, such as tools, flags, flagging kit, train jumper, headlight lanterns, switch hook, ventilator hook, and other supplies. The main compartment has a lavatory with an inset water bottle. Each end of car is also equipped with a fire extinguisher of 1 qt. capacity.
The lighting system consists of two side light circuits, twelve 120 volt 25 watt lamps, with opal shades, and one circuit of four, three-light domes. These give the cars a very pleasing interior appearance. The fixtures were designed at the shop of the Grand River Railway, cast locally, and all machine work and fitting done at the company's shop.
The heating consists of two circuits of thirty 50 volt heater elements. Each vestibule is heated by a 750 volt heater, the two are connected in series.
Each car is equipped with four Westinghouse 545-A-6 motors two connected in series on 1500 volts. Control equipment in Westinghouse, A. B. 334/A-3 master controller, with 265-E-5 and E-6 switch groups, 284-C reverser. A double set of b. h. 24 volt Edison storage batteries operate the control apparatus.
The air brake equipment is Westinghouse A. M. U. with M-23 brake valves U-2 universal valve, a D-2-K compressor, controlled by the S-6-B master governor operating an A-8 switch, wired for synchronizing all governors in a train. All rolling stock is equipped with M. C. B. Tomlinson radial couplers, and each car is equipped with an electric pneumatic communicating signal, electric bells for passenger's signals, air foot gongs, air operated sanders, electric marker and classification lamps, operated from 24 volt control storage battery.
The trucks for these cars were designed and constructed at the company's shop, Preston, using M. C. B. 37-in. wheel 5×9 in. journal boxes, wheel centers are 7 ft. 2 ins. All brake levers and hangers are fitted with case hardened bushing and pins.
The cars are equipped with helical gears of Nuttal make, having a ratio of 25 and 62, giving a speed of 50 miles per hour.
The express service is taken care of by a modern arched roof steel express car, 64 ft. long, 9 ft. 6 ins. wide, and 13 ft. 2 ins. over trolley board.
Its construction is similar to the passenger cars but heaver. The weight of this car is 52 tons fully equipped. The interior is enameled light slate color, has one circuit of lights 12-120 volt 25 watt, through the center, equipped with enameled reflectors. The air brake equipment is similar to that used on passenger cars, except that a large air storage capacity is provided and a 16 in. brake cylinder is used.
Signal and alarm equipment is similar to passenger cars, with the addition of a pneumatic air signal line, to be used in handling steam road passenger and express cars. It is equipped with four field controlled motors of Westinghouse 562-D-5 type, connected two in series, for 1500 volt operation, with spur gears having a ratio of 24 to 54, giving a speed of 60 miles per hour. The trucks are similar to those used on passenger cars, being one inch wider to provide for 5 1/2×10 in. jounrals, 36 in. wheel of M. C. B. contour are used. The master controllers are 334-A-3 with 265-E-7 and D-23 switch groups, 284-C reverser, double sets of b. h. 24 volt Edison storage batteries for its operation.
Original Lake Erie & Northern Railway rolling stock
This consists of four, 58 ft. steel underframe passenger cars, two control trailers and two combination express and passenger cars, of same length. These cars 9 ft. 6 ins. wide, and 13 ft. to top of trolley board. Weight of passenger cars 42 tons, trailers 30 tons, express car 43 tons.
The electric, air brake, and auxiliary circuits and devices are similar to the new equipment, except that the wheel base of the trucks is 82 inches and that they are equipped with spur gearing. The speed is somewhat higher than that of the new cars because of the lower weight, but they operate successfully with the new equipment. At times as high as five motor cars are used in a train.
Two of the motor cars have been thoroughly overhauled and refinished inside and out, with minor changes in some of the layout of equipment to facilitate repairs.
The two control trailers have been converted into motor cars by the addition of motors, with helical gearing, switch groups, resistance, air compressor, compressor governors, and trolley bases.
The two express cars have also received a thorough overhauling of equipment, and refinishing inside and out.
The old outside finish was Pullman color enamel, and the inside of smoking compartment had dark ceiling with oak woodwork. The main compartment was trimmed in mahogany with buff colored ceiling. One end of main compartment has a lavatory with inset water bottle, the passenger compartment on the express cars being furnished the same as the smoker on passenger cars, while the express compartment has a light blue finish. During the overhauling of this equipment, all varnish on interior woodwook was removed and refinished. The ceiling received a white enamel finish, which greatly improved the inside appearance. The outside was changed to the newly adopted standard color of vitralite tuscan red enamel and relettered. This, with the raising of car body to a height of 34 1/2 ins. to center of coupler from top of rail, added to the general appearance of the cars. The seating capacity is seventy.
Original 600 volt passenger equipment of Grand River Railway
This consisted of eight 54 ft. cars, six of wood construction throughout, and two with steel underframes. These are all mounted on Baldwin trucks, except one which has Taylor trucks. The control is of Westinghouse A. B. type with 93-A motors A. M. M. brake equipment. The weight averages 32 tons equipped, and seating capacity, sixty.
Three of these cars are being converted into motor cars, with identical equipment of the original Lake Erie & Northern cars, with the exception of having helical gears, instead of spur gearing. the speed of these will be close to sixty miles per hour. Considerable change has to be made on the bodies as they are equipped with entrance on one side, at each end only, to make it possible to load from either side, and provide for an M. C. B. radial coupler arrangement, also to provide buffer space on end of cars.
The balance of the old cars will be converted into control trailers, two for the Grand River Railway and three for the Lake Erie & Northern Railway. These will weigh about 24 tons when completed.
Three 72-ton locomotives were also turned out in the company's shop, with exception of the underframe. These are 34 ft. 6 ins. long, over end plates, steel throughout, equipped with double end control M. C. B. pocket coupler on each end.
The motors are Westinghouse 562-D-5 with field control, have helical gearing with a ratio of 16 to 60, this gives a speed of about 28 miles per hour running light. They will handle a train of 800 tons over the majority of the lines, the ruling condition being imposed by a combined grade of 1 1/2 per cent and a 2 deg. curve. The have 36 in. M. C. B. contour steel tired wheels of the bolted, shrunk type; 5 1/2×10 in. journals; rigid bolster type trucks supported on half-elliptical springs by 2 in. pins through hanger from equalizing bars.
The control equipment has 337-D-2 H. B. F. master controllers with 265-D-15 and D-16 switch groups, ad a 284-C-4 reverser.
The air brake equipment is of the E. L. type, for straight and automatic with K-14 distributing valve. This improves the switching ability of the locomotives. Two D-4-N double commutator compressors supply the air for brakes, pneumatic signal, engine bell, sanders and alarm whistle.
A Y-5 blower motor is installed for forced ventilation of traction motors, a tap being taken off between the centre of field leads for interior lighting and headlight. The batteries for operating the control are B. H. 24 volt Edison type, and are charged by grounding the blower to them. The outside finish is Pullman color enamel, with a bluish lead oil roof paint. Inside is finish in green. A pantagraph base is installed, but at present not is use, except to carry a trolley base for pole operation. When pantagraph is put in operation, two bases will be mounted, one at each side of the panatagraph base, for pole operation in certain sidings, for switching purposes.
Two of these locomotives are for the Grand River Railway, and one for the Lake Erie & Northern Railway.
In addition to the two just described, the Grand River Railway has one 45 tons locomotive that was partially rebuilt and entirely equipped for 1500 volt operation from 600 volt operation. The trucks were rebuilt to take 5×9 in. journal boxes instead of 4 1/2×8 in. as formerly, and to accommodate the larger motor. The motors are 454-A-6 with a 16 to 71 gear ratio, 2 in series for 1500 volts, with H. B. 337-D-2 master controllers, 265-E-8 and E-9 switch groups, 284-C reverse, B. H. 24 volt batteries for its operation, governor equipment consisting of S-6-B master governor, A-8 switch, D-4-N compressor, S-3 straight air valves and G-6 automatic valves with type K triple valves. The length of this motor is 32 ft. It is also equipped for snow plow service.
At present a 28 ft. 6 in. overall locomotive is being built in shop. This will have a full cab because of being too short to accommodate a steeple type cab as on the 224 and 72 ton locomotives. It will weigh 40 tons when completed and have an exact duplicate of equipment of locomotive 224.
Original locomotives of the Lake Erie & Northern Railway
These are of similar type as those built is Preston, and were built and equipped by the Baldwin and Westinghouse companies, in the States. One is a slow speed, equipped with an exact duplicate of the three 72 ton ones just described above. It has been thoroughly overhauled. There is a difference in the weight distribution from the new ones for it has all its weight on the ends, in castings, while the new ones carry most of their weight between the body bolsters.
The other one weighs 64 tons, and is equipped with regenerative brake equipment. This is inoperative at present, but will be put in service shortly. It is a high speed locomotive used for fruit specials and special train movements. The motors are 562-D-5 field control with a 24-54 gear ratio. The master controllers are 337-A-3 H. B. R. F. type, A-284-C-4 reverser, a type 123-A field commutator switch with 104-A operating head, a Y-X-2 motor generator set for furnishing lights and exciter current for regeneration and battery charging. It also has a fan mounted on the shaft for forced ventilation of the main motors.The balance of equipment is a duplicate of new locomotives of 72 ton class. This locomotive has a speed of 55 miles per hour. It is also equipped with snow fighting equipment.
Equipment on the Grand River Railway will consist of the following:
- Seven 64 ft. steel passenger cars.
- Three 54 ft. steel underframe passenger cars.
- Two 54 ft. wooden control trailers.
- One 64 ft. express car.
- Two 72 ton locomotives.
- One 45 ton locomotive.
- One 40 ton locomotive.
At a later date, a 60 ton express car will be built to handle freight and express trains over both lines.
Equipment on the Lake Erie & Northern Railway will consist of the following:
- Two 64 ft. steel passenger cars.
- Six 58 ft. steel underframe passenger cars.
- Three 54 ft. control trailers.
- One 72 ton locomotive.
- One 62 ton locomotive.
- One 64 ton locomotive.
Two 58 ft. steel underframe combination express and passenger cars.
In connection with the above, the Preston shop of the Grand River Railway was increased 100 per cent in floor space and additional equipment added to facilitate the work. It contains in wood shop, one drill press, one rip saw and one square head 18 in. planner. The blacksmith shop has two forges; these are fed with air from shop air supply, through a reducing valve. Paint shop accommodation for two cars.
The machine shop has the following equipment:
- 1 24 in. stroke shaper.
- 1 small high speed drill.
- 1 drill press.
- 1 radial arm drill.
- 1 emery wheel.
- 1 power hack saw.
- 2 lathes.
- 1 wheel press.
- 1 30 h.p. 550 v. 25 cycle induction motor.
- 1 double head wheel lathe, recently installed.
Also have one air operated corner drill, two larger air drills and a rivetting gun. One track running full length of shop has a pit and is spanned by an overhead crane. The power supply is at 550 volts d.c. being a D-1 compressor motor, so one of the old 500 d.c. shop motors was equipped with series field coils to give compounding to furnish the power to operate the crane.
In view of the fact that the shop was not properly equipped with machinery for the heavy work and that the majority of shop employees were inexperienced in rolling stock construction, the rapid construction of the program reflects considerable credit upon the shop management.
Freight handling service.
Facilities for the handling of and the efficient despatch of heavy freight traffic, is the special feature of the rejuvenated railway. Interchange connections are located on the Lake Erie & Northern Railway at Galt, with the Grand River Railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the Grand Trunk Railway; at Brantford with the Grand Trunk Railway, the Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway; and at Waterford with the Michigan Central Railway. The Grand River Railway has interchange connections at Galt, with the Lake Erie & Northern Railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the Grand Trunk Railway; at Preston, Kitchener and Waterloo, connections are also made with the Grand Trunk Railway.
In both instances, the freight sheds, team tracks and classification yards are separated from the main line, also from streets, so that freight handling does not interfere with passenger of vehicular traffic.
With the completion of the laying of 85 lb. steel rails this summer, between Kitchener and Waterloo, through trains will be operated between Port Dover and Waterloo, over the combined lines of the Grand River and Lake Erie & Northern Railways.
Freight schedules now in effect provide over-night service between Grand River and Lake Erie & Northern Railway points, with Windsor, London, Toronto, Hamilton and Montréal. Direct freight connections are also made with C.P.R. fast trains to and from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ports, and the Canadian Northwest.
Train despatchers are employed on these lines, and the movement of all trains is, therefore, despatched in the regular steam road manner. The new 1500-volt operation on both roads, together with the new equipment, has resulted in the desired improvements in the way of prompt and efficient handling of traffic, together with reduced operating expenses.
In the operation of these railways, steam road practice is used to advantage wherever possible. The writer has been connected with the properties since their inception, L. E. Marcus, superintendent, has had considerable steam road experience, and W. A. Ernst, master mechanic, has had considerable experience in electric railway work in both Canada and the United States.
Rebuilt locomotives for freight and passenger service on Lake Erie and Northern and Grand River Railways.
Type of car which has been replaced by modern steel cars, Grand River Railway.
Modern new steel passenger car for fifteen-hundred volt Canadian electric railway.
One-thousand kilowatt, fifteen-hundred volt motor generator sets in Preston Substation of Grand River Railway.
How express is handled on the Grand River Railway—Fifty-two ton express car sixty-four feet long.
Railways: C.P.Ry., G.R.Ry., G.T.Ry., L.E. & N.Ry., M.C.Rd., T.H. & B.Ry.