November 1941, No. 2 Upper Canada Railway Society Bulletin (Toronto) Page 4

Notes on early C.P.R. engines

Andrew Merrilees

As the C.P.R., as originally projected, was a Dominion Government enterprise, having been partially built by the government under Sandford Fleming, C.E., the earliest locomotives of the railway were those employed on government construction.

Many of these were new, others second-hand. Most of the new engines were Baldwins built for Joseph Whitehead, contractor for the Pembina branch, from Emerson(on the U.S. border) to Winnipeg. Among these was the Countess of Dufferin, which was Whitehead's No. 1. Other contractors bought second-hand 4-4-0's from the Grand Trunk and Intercolonial, among those from the latter railway being the famous four Hiawatha, Blomidon, Gabriel and Basil which mere converted broad-gauge engines from the Windsor and Annapolis Railway of Nova Scotia. These were rebuilt from 4-4-0 to 0-6-0 types and were in service in Vancouver, Winnipeg and Brandon yards until 1907.

An interesting group of other construction locomotives, those used by D.O. Mills Construction Co. to build from Port Moody (near Vancouver) eastward to a point in the Rocky Mountains, were bought from the Virginia and Truckee Railroad of California, with the exception of one, popularly known as the Curly, which is now on exhibition in Hastings Park, Vancouver. This locomotive was first used by Mills to build the San Francisco breakwater, and then was sent to Callao, Peru, for harbour construction. On the completion of this job, Mills landed it at Port Moody, for use on C .P.R. construction. None of the Mills engines were taken over by the C.P.R. on the completion of the work, as were those of other contractors. They were, with the exception of the Curly, bought by the Intercolonial Railway, and were all running on that road until the end of the first Great War. The last one, which became C.N.R. 7083, mas scrapped at Moncton in 1924.

So much has been written about the Countess of Dufferin that is incorrect that a true statement of her history in indicated. While this engine was painted Canadian Pacific Railway No. 1, there were actually at that time several C.P.R. No. 1's on the several disjointed sections of the line which were in the hands of the contractors and not yet completed. When the Canadian Pacific Railway Company mas formed in Montréal in 1882 and the undertaking turned over to private interests, the Countess of Dufferin mas bought by the C.P.R. Company, and thereafter became C.P.R. No. 151. She was used in passenger, freight and switching work in the west and in April, 1897, was sold to the Golden Lumber Co. of Golden, B.C., with a sloped tender and footboards, and diamond stack. This firm later became the Columbia River Lumber Co., and one day in 1909 a mayor of Winnipeg on a visit to Golden saw the old engine on the company's scrap heap, made inquiries, and learned that it was the Countess of Dufferin. As a result of his interest, the engine was formally presented to the City of Winnigeg by the lumber company, and was repaired gratis in the C.P.R. Winnipeg shops with a regulation tender and sunflower stack, which it actually never had had before. In 1910 it was placed in Whyte Park, Winnipeg, and is the property of the city.

Sandford Fleming, engineer-in-chief of the C.P.R. during government construction, commissioned the then superintendent of motive power of the other government line, the Intercolonial, to make a survey of the railways of Canada and the United States to ascertain the best dimensions and data for a group of standard locomotives for the C.P.R. His recommendations to Fleming (vide p. 310, C.P.R. Report , 1880) were that the road adopt one standard type of engine to simplify operations and repairs, and that in his opinion this type should be that of Class C of the Pennsylvania Railroad, i.e., an engine with 17x24 cylinders and 62" drivers of the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement. This, it vas contended, would make an ideal locomotive for both freight and passenger service. Plans for this engine were drawn up and sent to the various locomotive builders who turned them out. Among these were Dubs & Co., of Glasgow, Scotland (now North British Locomotive Co.), Baldwin, Danforth, Pittsburgh, Rogers and others. The first locomotive built by the C.P.R. was one of this class, known as SA (Standard 'A' ) number 285, built in 1883 at the old Delorimier Avenue Shops, Montréal, which produced 383 locomotives up until the removal to Angus Shops in January, 1905.

In ensuing years the C.P.R. built a goodly percentage of its own motive power. As time went on, a series of Baldwin Consolidations for freight were added to the equipment list, and these were first employed as pusher engines in the Rockies. These engines had sloped back tenders originally. The first yard engines mere built by Rhode Island Locomotive Works and were of the 0-6-0 type.

The few large railroads which the C.P.R. absorbed in the years that followed supplied the parent system with considerable unstandardized motive power. A story in itself could be told about the various unusual units acquired from such roads as the Toronto, Grey and Bruce; Credit Valley; Québec, Montréal, Ottawa and Occidental; New Brunswick Railway System; and the North Shore Railway. The original numbering series was adhered to until 1905, when a general renumbering took place. Again in 1913 another general renumbering brought the motive power to its present series. The oldest unit on the system today is one of the original Dubs SA type, No. 105, in service between Norton and Chipman, N.B. Other 4-4-0's still in service are Nos. 29, 30, and 144 built at Delorimier Shops in the late eighties, and No. 136, built by Rogers at the same time.

Throughout its history the C.P.R. has built in its own shops 1055 locomotives, the last of which was No. 8000, huge, multi-pressure engine recently scrapped. Several odd, experimental, short-lived types make interesting the otherwise extremely standardized motive power history of the company. There were, for instance, the five Mother Hubbard D-11 type 4-6-0's, equipped with Wootten fireboxes. These were removed in 1910 and the engines rebuilt and reboilered to the conventional type. There was also one Mother Hubbard Consolidation, No. 1026, which later became 3230, shortly afterwards being rebuilt. The 1950-55 series 0-6-6-0 Mallets are well-known. They were rebuilt in 1917-18 to Nos. 5750-55 Class R-2 Decapods. Some interesting, suburban, tank-type locomotives were built in Delorimier and Angus Shops, the first being No. 624 (later 5990) which was used in the Montréal-Point Fortune local service. No more of this class were built but later on three light suburban engines, Nos. 5991-93, and two tank switching (0-6-4T) locomotives were built. A11 of these are now scrapped except one of the latter, 5997, now in service at Ottawa. An experimental steam car, number 83, was built and placed in Montréal-Vaudreuil service early in the century, but mas rebuilt into a conventional combination car and is still in service as such today.

Compounding of locomotive cylinders by the Richmond, Vauclain and Balanced methods was popular on the C.P.R., as on all roads, after the turn of the century; but this practice gradually entered into disfavour and was replaced by superheating the locomotives by the Vaughan and Horsey method, devised by H.H. Vaughan and A.W. Horsey, two officials of the C.P.R. motive power department in 1912-13.

Railways: C.P.Ry.